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不锈钢基本知识
点击次数:1553 发布时间:2012-10-14

不锈钢是指在大气、水、酸、碱和盐或其他介质中具有一定化
学稳定性的钢的总称.一般来讲,耐大气、蒸汽和水等弱介质腐蚀
的钢称为不锈钢,而将其中耐酸、碱和盐等腐蚀性强的钢称为耐蚀
钢,或耐酸钢。不锈钢具有不锈性,但不一定耐腐蚀,而耐腐蚀钢
一般具有较好的不锈性。
从合金元素构成讲,不锈钢是在普通碳钢的基础上,加人
12%以上的Cr(铬),铬在钢表面形成坚固致密的Cr2 03氧化膜,
使钢与大气或腐蚀介质隔离而免遭腐蚀。不锈钢离心泵,若在此基础上加人一定量
的Si(硅)、Al(铝)等合金元素会提高钢的抗氧化性;加人Mo
(钥)、w(钨)、V(矾)、Ti
的碳化物,起弥散强化作用
(钦)等合金元素能形成细小的弥散
,提高室温和高温强度;加人Ni
Mo(相)、Cu(铜)、Nb
则能使钢具有耐腐蚀性、
(妮)、Ti(钦)、Si(硅)等合金
抗高温氧化或具有高温强度等
性,
化工
禾锈钢不仅具有很强的化学稳定性,同日寸也有足够m 3A序塑,
1.1不锈铂的分类及化学成介
目前各国不锈钢牌号已超过百种(我国有117个牌号),不锈
钢分类方法很多,按照GB/T 13304-1991《钢分类》以及上
通用的分类方法(按钢的组织划分),不锈钢分为5类,即奥氏体
不锈钢、奥氏体一铁素体型不锈钢、铁素体不锈钢、马氏体型不锈
钢和沉淀硬化型不锈钢,不锈钢人孔,我国国家标准规定的不锈钢板和耐热钢板
的不锈钢牌号化学成分、组织形态见表1-1,
1.1. 1不锈钢的分类
不锈钢的分类方法通常以金相组织及用途进行分类。按金相组
织分类为:铁素体(F)型不锈钢、马氏体(M)型不锈钢、奥氏
体(A)型不锈钢、奥氏体一铁素体(A-F)型双相不锈钢、奥氏
体一马氏体(A-M)型双相不锈钢和沉淀硬化(PH)型不锈钢。这
几类不锈钢之间的成分。
奥氏体型不锈钢
奥氏体不锈钢在室温下内部显微组织为纯奥氏体组织或奥氏
体+少量铁素体组织。形成少量铁素体的目的主要是为防止热裂纹
的产生,也有利于防止焊缝的晶间腐蚀.
奥氏体型不锈钢以Crl8Ni9铁基合金为基础,在此基础上随
着不同的用途,发展成图1-2所示的铬镍奥氏体不锈钢系列。奥氏
体型不锈钢不能利用热处理使晶粒细化,不锈钢人孔,也不能经过淬火来提高其
硬度。奥氏体型不锈钢在氧化性环境中具有优良的耐腐蚀性能和良
好的耐热性能,是应用zui广泛的不锈钢,其中以18-8型不锈钢zui有
代表性,它有较好的力学性能和良好的焊接性。但对溶液中含有氯
离子(Cl-)的介质特别敏感,卫生级隔膜阀,易发生应力腐蚀。在这类钢中添加
钦和妮时,能提高其抗晶间腐蚀能力;添加铝、铜和钦,则能提高
其在还原酸(如稀硫酸)中的耐腐蚀性能,同时也提高其抗晶间腐
蚀的能力.18-8型不锈钢按其含碳址的不同分为三个等级:一般
含碳量(质址分数we( 0. 15肠)、低碳级(质址分数wc<0.08%)
和超低碳级(质量分数uC《0.03肠).

英文产品介绍:

Stainless steel is that in the atmosphere, water, acid, alkali, salt or other medium with a certain
Studied the stability of the general term of the steel. Generally speaking, weak medium corrosion resistance of air, steam and water
Steel called stainless steel, acid, alkali and salt corrosion of steel as corrosion
Steel or acid-proof steel. Stainless steel with stainless steel, but not necessarily to corrosion, and corrosion-resistant steel
Generally has a preferably stainless.
Constituting stresses from the alloying elements, the stainless steel is on the basis of common carbon steel, Joined
More than 12% Cr (chromium), chromium to solid compact Cr2 03 oxide film is formed on the steel surface,
From corrosion of the steel with the atmosphere or corrosive media isolation. Stainless steel centrifugal pump, on this basis, plus a certain amount
Si (silicon), Al (aluminum) and other alloying elements may improve the oxidation resistance of steel; added Mo
(Key), W (tungsten) and V (alum), Ti
Carbide dispersion strengthening effect from the
(Chin) and other alloying elements to form a fine dispersion
To improve the room temperature and high temperature strength; Joined Ni
Mo (phase), Cu (copper), Nb
Is possible to make the steel having corrosion resistance,
(Ni), Ti (Chin), Si (silicon) and other alloys
High temperature oxidation resistance, high temperature strength
Resistance,
Chemical industry
Wo stainless steel not only has a high chemical stability, and also have sufficient m 3A sequence plastic same day inch,
The 1.1 the stainless platinum classified and chemical into referral
Countries grades of stainless steel has more than one hundred kinds (of 117 grade) stainless
Many steel classification, according to GB / T 13304-1991 steel Classification and international
General classification (the organization divided) by steel, stainless steel is divided into five categories, namely austenitic
Stainless steel, a ferritic austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel, martensitic stainless
Steels and precipitation hardened stainless steel, stainless steel manhole, the country's national standards for stainless steel plate and heat-resistant steel plate
Grades of stainless steel chemical composition, morphology shown in Table 1-1,
Classification of 1.1. 1 stainless steel
The classification method of stainless steel is usually the microstructure and use classification. Metallographic group
Organizations classified as: (F) type of ferritic stainless steel, stainless steel martensite (M), Albright
Stainless steel body (A), the austenite-ferrite (AF) type duplex stainless steels, austenitic
The body of a martensite (AM) lean duplex stainless steel and precipitation hardening (PH) stainless steel. This
Between several types of stainless steel components.
Austenitic stainless steel
Internal microstructure of austenitic stainless steel at room temperature for pure austenite austenitic
Body + small amount of ferrite organization. The main purpose of the formation of a small amount of ferrite to prevent hot cracking
Generation, but also conducive to to prevent weld intergranular corrosion.
Austenitic stainless steel based to Crl8Ni9 the iron-base alloy and, on this basis, with the
Significantly different purposes, and developed into a chrome-nickel austenitic stainless steel series shown in Figure 1-2. Albright
Body stainless steel can not use a heat treatment so that grain refinement, stainless steel manhole, can not be hardened to improve their
Hardness. Austenitic stainless steel has excellent corrosion resistance and good in the oxidizing environment
Good heat resistance, is the most widely used of the stainless steel, wherein the 18-8 stainless steel is most
The representation, which has good mechanical properties and good weldability. But the solution containing chlorine
Ion (Cl-) media is particularly sensitive, Sanitary diaphragm valves, prone to stress corrosion. Added in such steel
Chin and Minnie, to increase its resistance to intergranular corrosion; Add aluminum, copper and Chin, you can improve
Restore acid (e.g. sulfuric acid) in the corrosion resistance, but also to improve its resistance to intergranular rot
Ability to eclipse .18-8 stainless steel different sites according to their carbon content is divided into three levels: general
Carbon content (qualitative Address fraction we (0 15 intestinal), low-carbon level (qualitative Address fraction wc <0.08%)
And ultra-low carbon level (mass fraction uC "0.03 intestines).

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